Prevention and Treatment of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma


  • Imrana Tanvir Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Sidra Khalid University Institution of Dietetics & Nutritional Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Kashifa Ehsan Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Maria Fareed Siddique Department of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan



Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing day by day in its incidence and prevalence globally while its etiology differs in different parts of the world. Its risk factors, causative agents vary with regions and males are found to be dominating in using cigarettes, alcohol and gutka products, because of its easily availability and access to males in all places whereas females are more conscious about their health and esthetic value. This may be one of the reasons, which may be responsible for a high male-to-female ratio. This mini-review sheds lights on the treatment and preventive strategies available for the management of OSCC


Wozniak A, Szyfter K et al. Head and neck cancer--history. Przegl Lek, 2012, 69(10): 1079-1083.

Macfarlane GJ, Boyle P et al. Oral cancer in Scotland: changing incidence and mortality. BMJ, 1992, 305(6862): 1121-1123. doi: 10.1136/bmj.305.6862.1121.

Parkin DM, Bray F et al. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 2005, 55(2): 74-108. doi: 10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74

Mafi N, Kadivar M et al. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian patients and risk factors in young adults: a fifteen-year study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012,13(7): 3373-3378. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.7.3373.

Termine N, Panzarella V et al. HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma vs head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies: a meta-analysis (1988-2007). Ann Oncol, 2008,19(10): 1681-1690. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdn372.

Dreyer JH, Hauck F et al. Detection of HPV infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a practical proposal. Virchows Arch, 2013, 462(4): 381-389. doi: 10.1007/s00428-013-1393-5.

Mackillop WJ, Zhou Y et al. A comparison of delays in the treatment of cancer with radiation in Canada and the United States. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 1995, 32(2): 531-539. doi: 10.1016/0360-3016(94)00662-5.

Lamot L, Vidovic M et al. [Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in treatment of autoimmune diseases]. Lijec Vjesn, 2013, 135(5-6): 150-155. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2017.7.

Elad S, Zadik Y et al. Oral cancer in patients after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: long-term follow-up suggests an increased risk for recurrence. Transplantation, 2010, 90(11): 1243-1244.doi: 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181f9caaa

Markowitz LE, Dunne EF et al. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep, 2007, 56(RR-2): 1-24.

Paavonen J, Naud P et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet, 2009, 374(9686): 301-314. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61248-4.

Lard-Whiteford SL, Matecka D et al. Recommendations for the nonclinical development of topical microbicides for prevention of HIV transmission: an update. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2004, 36(1): 541-552. doi: 10.1097/00126334-200405010-00001.

Howett MK and Kuhl JP. Microbicides for prevention of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Curr Pharm Des, 2005, 11(29): 3731-3746.

Buck CB, Thompson CD et al. Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection. PLoS Pathog, 2006, 2(7): e69.

Kreimer AR, Bhatia RK et al. Oral human papillomavirus in healthy individuals: a systematic review of the literature. Sex Transm Dis, 2010, 37(6): 386-391. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181c94a3b.

Gillison ML, Koch WM et al. Evidence for a causal association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst, 2000, 92(9): 709-720. doi: 10.1093/jnci/92.9.709.

Psyrri A, Gouveris P et al. Human papillomavirus-related head and neck tumors: clinical and research implication. Curr Opin Oncol, 2009, 21(3): 201-205. doi: 10.1097/cco.0b013e328329ab64

Westra WH. The changing face of head and neck cancer in the 21st century: the impact of HPV on the epidemiology and pathology of oral cancer. Head Neck Pathol, 2009, 3(1): 78-81. doi: 10.1007/s12105-009-0100-y

D'Souza G, Agrawal Y et al. Oral sexual behaviors associated with prevalent oral human papillomavirus infection. J Infect Dis, 2009, 199(9): 1263-1269. doi: 10.1086/597755.

Mannarini L, Kratochvil V et al. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in head and neck region: review of literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital, 2009, 29(3): 119-126.

Gillison ML, Alemany L et al.Human papillomavirus and diseases of the upper airway: head and neck cancer and respiratory papillomatosis. Vaccine, 2012, 30 Suppl 5: F34-54, doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.05.070.

Underbrink MP, Hoskins SL et al. Viral interaction: a possible contributing factor in head and neck cancer progression. Acta Otolaryngol, 2008, 128(12): 1361-1369. doi: 10.1080/00016480801965001.

Schwartz SM, Daling JR et al. Oral cancer risk in relation to sexual history and evidence of human papillomavirus infection. J Natl Cancer Inst, 1998, 90(21): 1626-1636. doi: 10.1093/jnci/90.21.1626.

Smith EM, Ritchie JM et al. Age, sexual behavior and human papillomavirus infection in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers." Int J Cancer, 2004, 108(5): 766-772. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11633.

D'Souza G, Kreimer AR et al. Case-control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med, 2007, 356(19): 1944-1956.doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa065497

Tezal M, Sullivan MA et al. Chronic periodontitis and the incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev,2009, 18(9): 2406-2412. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0334.



DOI: 10.54393/mjz.v1i1.11
Published: 2020-06-30

How to Cite

Tanvir, I. ., Khalid, S., Ehsan, . K. ., & Siddique, M. F. (2020). Prevention and Treatment of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 1(1), 8–10.



Review Article