Survey of Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Comorbidities in Lahore


  • Najiya Al-Arifa Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Noor ul Huda Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Samra Atta Ullah Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.



Vitamin D is recognized for its importance in bone health along with the reduced risk of cardiovascular, autoimmune and several chronic diseases. Objectives: Present study was designed to explore the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with comorbidities (Type 2 Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Hypertension, Asthma, Heart Disease, Gastritisand Osteoporosis) among the subjects visiting outpatient departments (OPDs) of public hospitals in Lahore. Methods: Adult (>18 years) male and female subjects (n = 200) participated in present cross-sectional study. Participating individuals were required to fill questionnaires which recorded their medical history and BMI. Blood samples were taken for laboratory evaluation of vitamin D3 deficiency. Data was analyzed for evaluation of diverse risk factors. Serum level of vitamin D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3]) were measured using standard procedures of measurement using Human Vitamin D3 (VD3) ELISA Kit (MyBioSource, Inc. USA). Results: Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Of the 200 individuals, the highest number of patients suffered from Diabetes Myelitis Type-II (61%) followed by Thyroid Disease (38%). Whereas, the least number of vitamin D3 deficient subjects were suffering from Osteoporosis (5%). 


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How to Cite

Al-Arifa, N. ., ul Huda, N. ., & Ullah, S. A. . (2021). Survey of Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Comorbidities in Lahore. MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 2(2), 18–23.



Original Article