Teratogenic Effects of Lead in the Developing Chick Embryos

Teratogenic Effects of Lead in the Developing Chick Embryos


  • Aqsa Shafiq Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • . Mahnoor Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • Mirza Fahad Baig Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • Yashal Fatima Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • Arooj Haer Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • Shakila Parveen Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Akram Tariq Department of Higher Education, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan Department of Zoology, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan




Micromelia, Amelia, Embryotoxicity, Microcephaly, Teratogenicity, Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification


Lead (heavy metal) can be found in trace levels in the crust of the planet. It may be harmful to both human and animals' health. Nearly all body's organs and systems can be affected by lead and mainly found in smelting and mining areas.  Objective: To estimate the effect of lead on chick embryos at morphologic, morphometric, and histological levels and to study the toxic effects of lead in developing chick embryos Methods: Fertilized eggs were separated into three groups. Two groups were treated with varying concentrations of lead as experimental groups, untreated designated as control group. The dose was administered on the fourth day of incubation, and recovery occurred on the ninth day. Results: Significant differences (p<0.000) and (p<0.001) in CR length, body weight, head size, eye circumference, forelimb and hindlimb were reported. Morphological abnormalities such as hydrocephaly, microcephaly, beak shortening, agenesis, Amelia, micromelia, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and kyphosis were seen. It also revealed various abnormalities in important organs such as irregular cerebral folia, necrotic intestine, and hemorrhages in bursa fabricious. Lead has been shown in various combinations to cause embryotoxicity and teratological effects in chick embryos. Conclusions: Lead is a harmful pollutant and may be responsible for various developmental anomalies in livings beings including animals and humans.


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DOI: 10.54393/mjz.v4i01.63
Published: 2023-06-30

How to Cite

Shafiq, A., Mahnoor, ., Fahad Baig, M., Fatima, Y. ., Haer, A. ., Parveen, S. ., Tariq, M. A. ., & Ahmad Khan, M. K. . (2023). Teratogenic Effects of Lead in the Developing Chick Embryos: Teratogenic Effects of Lead in the Developing Chick Embryos. MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 4(01), 16–20. https://doi.org/10.54393/mjz.v4i01.63



Original Article