Frequency of Micro-organisms in Different Biological Samples of Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan

Isolation of microorganisms from biological samples


  • Ansar Abbas Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sidra Khalid Faculty of Allied Health Sciences (FAHS), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Syeda Uroosa Jafri Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan



Infection, Bacteria, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, samples, Antibody resistance


Bacterial infections are one of the leading causes of illness and death across the world. In this context, the spread of resistant microbes plays a key role. Due to insufficient treatment choices and the sluggish discovery of new antibiotic classes, the rapid emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria poses a serious threat to global public health. Objective: To determine the frequency of clinical isolates in various samples. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken at the Pathology Department of the Fatima Memorial Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. The study lasted one year. A total of 1,200 samples (sputum, wound swabs, blood, urine, pus, cerebrospinal fluid, and semen) were collected. Each sample was taken in a sterile container. The sample container was labeled with the source, date, and time of collection within one hour of collection and brought to the laboratory for analysis. Bacteria were identified using traditional culture and biochemical testing. Results: A total of 1200 clinical isolates were identified. Positive cultures obtained from 1200 biological samples were mostly from Urine (71.1%). 55.3% of the positive sample were male and 73% of the clinical isolates were gram-negative. Among Gram-negative isolates, the most common pathogen was Klebsiella species (42.9%) and among Gram-Positive isolates, the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus Aureus 68.5%. Conclusions: Gram-negative bacterial isolates were prevalent, with 55% frequency distribution and Staphylococcus aureus was frequent in different samples of patients.


Iredell J, Brown J and Tagg K. Antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: mechanisms and clinical implications. BMJ. 2016;352.

Rashid A, Chowdhury A, Rahman SH, Begum SA, Muazzam N. 2007. Infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates from Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology 1(2): 48- 51.

Andersson DI and Hughes D. Antibiotic resistance and its cost: is it possible to reverse resistance?. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2010;8(4):260-71.

Livermore DM. Fourteen years in resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012;39(4):283-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.12.012.

Martinez JL, Baquero F and Andersson DI. Predicting antibiotic resistance. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2007;5(12):958-65.

Khan NW, Hassan F, Naqvi BS and Hasan SM. Antimicrobial activity of erythromycin and clarithromycin against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella and Proteus by disc diffusion method. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011;24(1):25-9.

Schito GC, Georgopoulos A and Prieto J. Antibacterial activity of oral antibiotics against community-acquired respiratory pathogens from three European countries. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:7-11. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkf802.

Nithya BR, Gladstone BP, Rodríguez-Baño J, Sifakis F, Voss A and Carmeli Y et al. EpideMiology and control measures of outBreaks due to Antibiotic-Resistant orGanisms in EurOpe (EMBARGO): a systematic review protocol. BMJ open 7(1): e013634.

Aslam B, Wang W, Arshad MI, Khurshid M, Muzammil S and Rasool MH et al. Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis. Infect Drug Resist. 2018;11:1645-1658. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S173867.

Cheesman MJ, Ilanko A, Blonk B and Cock IE. Developing New Antimicrobial Therapies: Are Synergistic Combinations of Plant Extracts/Compounds with Conventional Antibiotics the Solution? Pharmacogn Rev. 2017;11(22):57-72. doi: 10.4103/phrev.phrev_21_17.

Tarai B, Das P and Kumar D. Recurrent Challenges for Clinicians: Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin Resistance, and Current Treatment Options. J Lab Physicians. 2013;5(2):71-8. doi: 10.4103/0974-2727.119843.

Miriagou V, Cornaglia G, Edelstein M, Galani I, Giske CG and Gniadkowski M et al. Acquired carbapenemases in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens: detection and surveillance issues. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16(2):112-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03116.x.

Khan RA, Rahman AU, Ahmad A, Jaseem M, Jabbar A and Khan SA et al. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from different clinical samples in district Peshawar. J Appl Environ Biol Sci. 2014;4(8S):40-6.

Gould IM and Bal AM. New antibiotic agents in the pipeline and how they can help overcome microbial resistance. Virulence. 2013;4(2):185-91. doi: 10.4161/viru.22507.

Hayat K, Rosenthal M, Gillani AH, Chang J, Ji W and Yang C et al. Perspective of Key Healthcare Professionals on Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship Programs: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study From Pakistan. Front Pharmacol. 2020;10:1520. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01520.

Mehta A, Rosenthal VD, Mehta Y, Chakravarthy M, Todi SK and Sen N et al. Device-associated nosocomial infection rates in intensive care units of seven Indian cities. Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). J Hosp Infect. 2007;67(2):168-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2007.07.008.

Vega S and Dowzicky MJ. Antimicrobial susceptibility among Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms collected from the Latin American region between 2004 and 2015 as part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2017;16(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s12941-017-0222-0.

Baddour MM, Abuelkheir MM and Fatani AJ. Trends in antibiotic susceptibility patterns and epidemiology of MRSA isolates from several hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2006;5(1):1-1.

Abbas S, Sabir A and Khalid N et al. Frequency of Extensively Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan. Cureus. 2020;12(12):e11914. doi:10.7759/cureus.11914.

Kaleem F, Usman J, Hassan A, Omair M, Khalid A and Uddin R. Sensitivity pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Iran J Microbiol. 2010;2(3):143-6.



DOI: 10.54393/mjz.v1i2.9
Published: 2020-12-31

How to Cite

Abbas, A., Khalid, S., & Jafri, S. U. . (2020). Frequency of Micro-organisms in Different Biological Samples of Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Lahore, Pakistan: Isolation of microorganisms from biological samples. MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 1(2), 14–19.



Original Article